Short Stay Visa This type of visa is issued to foreign nationals who want to enter France for up to 3 months. The holder also allows to move freely between all 26 Schengen countries. You must apply for a short stay visa if the purpose of your travel is for:
Pleasure and family visits
Long Stay Visa This type of visa is issued to foreign nationals who wish to enter to France for more than three months. This visa is equivalent to residence permit, it allows the holder to live in France between 3 to 12 months.
For more information about French visa application, required documents, visa fees, where you can apply, etc., you may visit the official government website France Visas.